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## User: doe-hyun-yoon

### Title: In-Datacenter Performance Analysis of a Tensor Processing Unit

Many architects believe that major improvements in cost-energy-performance
must now come from domain-specific hardware. This paper evaluates a custom
ASIC---called a Tensor Processing Unit (TPU)---deployed in datacenters since
2015 that accelerates the inference phase of neural networks (NN). The heart of
the TPU is a 65,536 8-bit MAC matrix multiply unit that offers a peak
throughput of 92 TeraOps/second (TOPS) and a large (28 MiB) software-managed
on-chip memory. The TPU's deterministic execution model is a better match to
the 99th-percentile response-time requirement of our NN applications than are
the time-varying optimizations of CPUs and GPUs (caches, out-of-order
execution, multithreading, multiprocessing, prefetching, ...) that help average
throughput more than guaranteed latency. The lack of such features helps
explain why, despite having myriad MACs and a big memory, the TPU is relatively
small and low power. We compare the TPU to a server-class Intel Haswell CPU and
an Nvidia K80 GPU, which are contemporaries deployed in the same datacenters.
Our workload, written in the high-level TensorFlow framework, uses production
NN applications (MLPs, CNNs, and LSTMs) that represent 95% of our datacenters'
NN inference demand. Despite low utilization for some applications, the TPU is
on average about 15X - 30X faster than its contemporary GPU or CPU, with
TOPS/Watt about 30X - 80X higher. Moreover, using the GPU's GDDR5 memory in the
TPU would triple achieved TOPS and raise TOPS/Watt to nearly 70X the GPU and
200X the CPU.

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